Chemistry

AS and A2 Level Course Outlines

 

This course covers the following topics that are common to all specifications but students should check carefully that sessions are relevant to their own particular studies:

Topic 1 (AS) - Introductory Chemistry: Atomic structure: simple atomic models, orbitals and electronic configurations, ionisation energies; Ionic, covalent and metallic bonding; simple and giant covalent structures; inter-molecular forces. Shapes of molecules and ions.

Topic 2 (AS) - Amount of Substance and Associated Calculations: Equations and formulae: producing correct formulae and writing full balanced and ionic equations; mole calculations; solution and titration calculations. Empirical formula. Atom economy and percentage yield.

Topic 3 (AS) - Physical Chemistry: Kinetics: the factors influencing reaction  rates; Maxwell - Boltzmann distribution of energies; reaction profiles. Energetics: bond-breaking and bond – forming, definitions of ∆Hc, ∆Hf and Hess Law calculations; enthalpy level diagrams. Chemical equilibrium: reversibility, dynamic equilibrium, movement of equilibrium.

Topic 4 (AS) - Inorganic Chemistry: The Periodic Table: Group trends and periodic trends; Redox Chemistry: Assignment of oxidation number and its use in balancing redox equations; Chemistry; Groups 2, and 7.

Topic 5 (AS) - Organic Chemistry: Introductory organic chemistry: homologous series, naming and isomerism. Reactions of the Alkanes, alkenes, halogenoalkanes and alcohols. Mechanisms: attacking species and reactive intermediates. IR and MS spectroscopy of organic compounds.

Topic 6 (A2) - Physical Chemistry I: Equibilibria: Kc calculations, heterogeneous equilibria.  Kinetics:  rate equations.  Energetics:  Entropy and free energy.

Topic 7 (A2) - Physical Chemistry II: Acids and Bases: Bronsted-Lowry Theory, pH and calculations, acid strength, Ka, Kw, pKa  and pKw, titrations, curves and indicators, buffers, ∆Hneutr;

Topic 8 (A2) - Inorganic Chemistry: Transitions metals: definition, complex formation, shapes and the origin of colour, reaction with NaOH and NH3; catalysis. Redox equilibria: E, Ecell and reaction prediction.

Topic 9 (A2) - Organic Chemistry I: Isomerism: Geometrical and optical isomerism; Aldehydes and ketones: reactions, tests and mechanisms. Carboxylic acids and derivatives reactions, tests and mechanisms. Nitrogen compounds: amines, nitriles, amides, amino acids reactions, tests and mechanisms.

Topic 10 (A2) - Organic Chemistry II: Aromatic compounds: reactions and mechanisms; Polymers: addition and condensation, properties. Spectroscopy: IR, MS and NMR. Chromatography.